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Chapter 12 : RESTORED LÊ DYNASTY

After Nguyễn Kim passed away, his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm (1503-1507) succeeded him, conspiring to kill the Nguyễn family to usurp all the power. The Trịnh family became increasingly powerful. Nguyễn Hoàng (1525-1623), a son of Nguyễn Kim, had to seek refuge in the remote Thuận Hóa region (nowadays Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị, Thừa Thiên Huế). In 1592, the South Court’s [...]

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Chapter 13 : TÂY SƠN DYNASTY

In late 18th century, both Đàng Ngoài and Đàng Trong fell into crisis due to their prolonged civil war. Complains from villages throughout the country turned into rebels against the governments. Historians named this period “the century of peasant-led insurrections”. The most noticeable was the Tây Sơn insurrection launched in 1771 in the Upper Tây Sơn region (present-day An [...]

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Chapter 14 : NGUYỄN DYNASTY

In the autumn of 1792, Emperor Quang Trung suddenly passed away. The Tây Sơn Dynasty started to decline. Taking advantage of this situation, Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát’s grandchild, Nguyễn Ánh (1765-1820) attacked and conquered the Tây Sơn’s citadels, establishing the Nguyễn Dynasty in 1802. Nguyễn Ánh became Emperor Gia Long, founding the imperial capital in Phú Xuân (Huế). Two [...]

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Chapter 15 : FRENCH DOMINATION

The French invasion created a big breakage in our nation’s history. It caused suffering throughout Vietnam but also brought about a new breath of air that broke down the vicious circle of the traditional agricultural society. The French invaded Vietnamese under the motto “building civilization”. They allowed Vietnamese people to access to their Western civilization and technique in order [...]

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